2023: Vol 10 No 5
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Introduction: Spinal dural arterio-venous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare and underdiagnosed cause of myelopathy which can result in a devastating neurological outcome if not properly managed.
Case description: We report a case of SDAVF in a middle-aged man with gradual progressively deteriorating myelopathy and associated symptoms. This was first managed as demyelinating disease but was refractory to steroid therapy. Vigilant review of his spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed dilated perimedullary veins, suspicious for SDAVF. The diagnosis was confirmed with catheter angiography. Neurological symptoms resolved after surgical treatment.
Discussion: SDAVF can closely mimic demyelinating conditions such as transverse myelitis or multiple sclerosis. MRI finding of dilated perimedullary veins can be subtle and masked in the late stage, posing a diagnostic challenge for physicians. It is potentially curable after timely treatment.
Conclusion: Clinicians should maintain a high level of suspicion for SDAVF and actively review all available radiological imaging for clues, particularly when there is a lack of response to treatment for other causes of myelopathy.
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Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare malignancy of the thyroid gland which should be considered in patients with a rapidly growing cervical mass, especially in those with a history of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a rapidly growing goitre with compressive symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was performed to examine the extent of disease and a biopsy showed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stage I according to the Ann Arbor classification. The patient was immediately treated with high-dose prednisone for her compressive symptoms and after the diagnosis she received six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone) chemotherapy. The patient has now been in remission for 12 months. We present this case to demonstrate the importance of awareness of PTL. Up to 10% of cases can be missed with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), making it important to obtain a histological biopsy in rapidly growing goitres. In addition, establishing the correct diagnosis can in most cases prevent unnecessary surgical intervention. The preferred treatment with the best overall survival is chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy.
Successful thrombolytic therapy using ultraslow low-dose infusion during pregnancy for mitral mechanical valve thrombosis: a case series and review of the literatureViews: 284 HTML: 68 PDF: 260
According to the modified World Health Organization (WHO) classification, pregnant women with mechanical valves face a very high risk of complications (Risk Category III). Mechanical valve thrombosis is a serious complication that significantly increases during pregnancy due to multiple mechanisms. Thrombolytic therapy has recently been used as a first-line treatment for mechanical valve thrombosis during pregnancy. However, the consensus regarding the optimal treatment strategy, type, dose and route of administration was unclear. We present three cases of mechanical mitral valve thrombosis during pregnancy treated successfully with repeated doses of ultraslow infusion of low-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) alteplase. We also present a review of the literature on this subject.
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Bempedoic is a new drug for the management of hypercholesterolemia, approved since 2020 by the EMA for use in Europe. In this case report, we describe a 65-year-old woman with sudden worsening of hypertriglyceridemia after the introduction of bempedoic acid. Triglyceride levels normalized quickly on withdrawal of the drug. With this case report, we want to reveal a possible association between bempedoic acid and the paradoxical occurrence of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we want to emphasize the limited evidence regarding the use of bempedoic acid in patients with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia.
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Angina bullosa haemorrhagica (ABH) is a disease of unknown cause that occurs most frequently in middle-aged and older adults and is characterized by the destruction of blood vessels in the submucosal layer of the middle pharynx and larynx centred on the soft palate, resulting in the formation of haemorrhagic blisters. It usually resolves within a day and heals without scarring within about a week. No treatment is necessary. However, cases of airway obstruction due to haematemesis have been reported, and this potential risk should be considered when tracheal intubation or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is being performed. In this report, we describe the case of a 50-year-old man who developed a haematoma in the pharynx following upper endoscopy, which spontaneously ruptured and healed, leading to the diagnosis of ABH. The main purpose of this case report is to remind the reader that ABH improves without treatment, thus eliminating the need for unnecessary examination, and that there is a risk of airway obstruction depending on the site of the lesion.
A combination of three nerve entrapment syndromes, which was difficult to differentiate from a vertebral compression fractureViews: 300 HTML: 45 PDF: 322
Introduction: This report describes the educational case of a patient who developed three different cutaneous nerve entrapment syndromes at the same level of the thoracic nerve, which was difficult to differentiate from a vertebral compression fracture.
Case Description: A 74-year-old woman presented with right lower abdominal pain, followed by back and flank pain. During later assessment, anterior, posterior and lateral cutaneous nerve entrapment syndromes at the Th11 level were diagnosed.
Conclusion: A combination of three different cutaneous nerve entrapment syndromes can occur in the same patient.
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Turmeric is a herbal medication and spice which has been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine for its flavour, colour, and purported anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antineoplastic and antimicrobial properties. It has recently garnered interest and popularity worldwide for these reasons. While turmeric supplements are generally safe, some reports of toxicity are emerging. Compounds like piperine are added to turmeric to enhance its bioavailability, potentially contributing to its toxicity. Here, we describe a 55-year-old woman with progressive jaundice and elevated bilirubin and liver enzymes but no evidence of acute liver failure. She was treated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for 24 hours and liver function tests (LFTs) were closely monitored. As a downtrend in LFTs was noted and the patient remained asymptomatic, she was discharged with close outpatient follow-up. LFTs eventually normalized 2 months after the initial presentation. Clinicians must keep this differential in mind when evaluating acute liver injury. With our case report, we question the utility of NAC in non-acetaminophen-related liver injury and encourage further studies.
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Hydatid disease, also known as cystic echinococcosis, is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It usually invades organs such as the liver and the lungs but can affect any organ. Isolated cardiac involvement is a rare manifestation. We present a case of isolated left ventricle hydatid cyst with negative serological tests, which was treated with surgical removal and confirmed by histopathological examination.
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A 30-year-old woman with a history of anorexia nervosa was admitted with weight loss, hypoglycaemia and electrolyte disturbances. During her admission, transaminases peaked at ALP 457 U/l, AST 817 U/l and ALT 1066 U/l. Imaging and laboratory findings were unrevealing, and she declined liver biopsy. Nutrition was introduced via a nasogastric tube and she demonstrated improvement in her laboratory values over several weeks. Her transaminitis was determined to be secondary to severe malnutrition, which has been previously described, but cases with such profound transaminitis are less common. Studies have demonstrated hepatic autophagocytosis as the likely cause.
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Behçet’s syndrome is a complex vasculitis involving vessels of all sizes. The typical clinical presentation consists of recurrent oral ulcers associated with genital ulcers, and/or intra-ocular inflammation and/or cutaneous lesions. It may also involve the joints, central nervous system, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Muscle involvement associated with Behçet’s syndrome has been rarely described. We here report two cases of muscular manifestations in the setting of Behçet’s syndrome with specific gastrocnemius muscle involvement.