Vol 7 No 2
  • Carolina Cavalcanti Gonçalves Ferreira, Deborah de Sá Pereira Belfort, Paulo Miranda Cavalcante Neto, Pedro Alves da Cruz Gouveia

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be related to several diseases, such as connective tissue disorders and pulmonary embolism, or to drugs; it may also be idiopathic. Few cases have been reported demonstrating an association between ascorbic acid deficiency and reversible PH. We report the case of a patient who arrived at the emergency department with dyspnoea, tachycardia and lower limb perifollicular haemorrhage. Examinations, including a transthoracic echocardiogram, revealed enlarged right chambers and an estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 61 mmHg. Further evaluation revealed poor food intake due to paranoid personality disorder, leading to ascorbic acid deficiency and manifestations of scurvy.

  • Joel Pinto, Paulo Almeida, Fani Ribeiro, Rita Simões

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-induced consciousness is a rarely described and often misunderstood phenomenon, although it can be encountered. High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may lead a patient to recover consciousness while in cardiac arrest. The authors present the case of an 89-year-old male patient who received CPR after a cardiac arrest. Spontaneous movements during CPR were noted and prompted several CPR interruptions. These movements immediately stopped during chest compression pauses. Physical restraint was used in order to be able to continue with the CPR algorithm, but sedation may be the best approach. Guidelines on how to identify and manage these cases need to be developed.

  • Giacomo Oldoini, Giulia Ricci Frabattista, Maria Saragoni, Saverio Cosola, Enrica Giammarinaro, Anna Maria Genovesi, Simone Marconcini

    Chemotherapy usually causes complications affecting several tissues such as oral mucosa. In this case report, a soft palate oral ulcer caused by chemotherapy was treated by ozone gas. This kind of treatment is known for its antimicrobial, regenerative and analgesic proprieties. The results show a complete resolution of the lesion within 2 weeks of treatment. Ozone therapy demonstrates greater effectiveness with respect to this kind of oral lesion compared to traditional therapy. Considering this evidence, ozone therapy should be considered as a useful tool for the adjuvant therapy of oral complications in oncologic patients.

  • Dimitra Koumaki, Sotirios Boumpoucheropoulos, Vasiliki Koumaki, Alexander Katoulis, Georgia Pappas, Aikaterini Mantaka, Konstantinos Krasagakis

    Objectives: Agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signalling pathway are increasingly being used for the treatment of advanced lung, pancreatic, colorectal and head and neck cancers.
    Case presentation: Here, we report the first case of eruptive seborrhoeic keratosis following panitumumab treatment, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, in a 73-year-old patient with stage 4 (IV) colorectal cancer with hepatic metastasis.
    Conclusion: While panitumumab is an emerging therapy for RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, physicians should consider panitumumab as a potential cause of eruptive seborrhoeic keratosis.

  • Sara Mendonça Freitas, Joana Silva Marques, Ana Grilo, Rodolfo Gomes, Fernando Martos Gonçalves

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by recurrent orogenital ulceration and several systemic manifestations (such as gastrointestinal involvement, vascular disease or arthritis). The pathogenesis is still unknown but the trigger role of certain pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis is well documented. Furthermore, patients with BD are more susceptible to tuberculosis due to immunity defects. Here, we describe the case of a 70-year-old woman with a history of recurrent oral aphthae and inflammatory arthritis presenting with extensive thrombosis of left upper limb major veins, a positive HLA B51 genotype and colon ulceration; hence, BD diagnosis was made after excluding other causes. Simultaneously, the patient had cutaneous abscesses not associated with immunosuppressive therapy with continuous development, and after recurrent negative tuberculosis work-up, M. tuberculosis was isolated in an abscess culture.

  • Fani Ribeiro, Mário Bibi, Marta Pereira, Sofia Ferreira, Helena Pessegueiro, Rui Araújo

    Heat stroke (HS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by hyperthermia and multiple organ failure. Mild to moderate hepatocellular injury is a well-documented complication but severe liver injury and acute liver failure are rare. There are neither established criteria nor optimal timing for liver transplantation and conservative management seems to be the cornerstone treatment. The authors report a case of a patient with severe liver injury related to HS who recovered completely under conservative treatment.

  • Ali Ibrahim Rahil, Ahmed Osman, Mohamed Magdi Mohamed Eid, Sara Kanbour, Ahmed Mahfouz

    Thrombotic disease represents a rare manifestation of leprosy. In this study, we report the case of an external jugular vein thrombosis associated with tuberculoid leprosy in a 23-year-old male patient. The patient presented with a 3-month history of painful cord-like swelling on the left side of the neck and a nearly 3-week history of skin lesions on the left cheek and right leg. Physical examination revealed cord-like, tender swelling on the left lateral aspect of the neck overlying the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and a hypopigmented, hypoaesthetic 6×7 cm lesion with an irregular margin on the left cheek. A Doppler ultrasound examination of the jugular vein showed thrombosis of the left external jugular vein. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the computed tomography scan showed the enlarged and enhanced left external jugular vein, as well as 1 of its tributaries, and the thickened skin patch. A skin punch biopsy from the left cheek lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with occasional peri-adnexal granulomas, consistent with the clinical impression of tuberculoid leprosy. A diagnosis of leprosy with external jugular vein thrombosis was established. Anticoagulation therapy was initiated, and the patient was referred to an infectious disease clinic for treatment with anti-leprosy medications.

  • Aurore Moussiegt, Luis Ferreira, Jérome Aboab, Daniel Silva

    Background: Copper is an essential trace element of the human body. However, it is related to many diseases. Copper intoxication is not common in Western countries, but needs to be rapidly recognised because of its high lethality.
    Case presentation: We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department after performing intrarectal administration of a blue powder sent from Cameroon by her family, in the belief that this would help her to get pregnant. Her evolution was complicated by multiorgan failure and the unusual circumstances. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the clinical presentation and the colour of the powder, and confirmed by blood dosage and toxicological analysis of the powder. She underwent symptomatic treatment, and the outcome was progressively favourable, apart from persistent chronic renal failure with dependence on dialysis.
    Conclusion: Copper intoxications are rare but severe. Laboratory diagnosis of the condition is not an issue; the difficulty is suspecting it and quickly initiating chelation treatment associated with symptomatic treatments.

  • Ana Filipa Pires, Teresa Martins Mendes, Ana Areia Reis, Ana Ferreira Pacheco, Vítor Fagundes, Mari Mesquita

    Introduction: Lumbar epidural anaesthesia is a commonly used technique for analgesia during labour. One of the rare complications of this technique is pneumocephalus.
    Case description: We report the case of a 35-year-old female admitted to the Emergency Department with severe headache associated with fast head movements. Five days previously she had a eutocic delivery and lumbar epidural anaesthesia was performed. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed pneumocephalus and she was admitted to the hospital ward. A brain CT scan on the fourth day of hospitalization showed resolution of ventricular pneumocephalus.
    Discussion: The most frequently occurring symptom with pneumocephalus is headache associated with fast brain motion resulting from air injection and meningeal irritation. When there is clinical suspicion of pneumocephalus, a brain CT scan should be performed for the diagnosis.

  • Monterrubio-Villar Jesús, Llinares-Moya David

    Brugada phenocopies (BrP) are clinical entities that present with an ECG pattern identical to either the type 1 or type 2 Brugada pattern without true congenital Brugada syndrome. This ECG pattern is associated with an identifiable condition and normalizes upon resolution or treatment of the underlying cause. We present a case of a 54-year-old man with extreme metabolic acidosis, hyperkalaemia and a Brugada type 1 ECG pattern in the setting of a suicidal methanol (MeOH) poisoning. Upon correction of these metabolic derangements with bicarbonate infusions and continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVH), the Brugada type 1 ECG pattern normalized. Unfortunately, the patient developed signs of cerebral herniation followed by brain death and died on the first day of ICU admission.

  • Sonia Canadas, Rita Fernandes, Hugo Almeida, João Santiago Correia

    Cystic mesotheliomas (also called mesothelial inclusion cysts) are rare benign neoplasms that occur more often in young women. Symptoms are usually non-specific, demanding a thorough work-up. We report a case of a 40-year-old female patient with 2 prior caesarean sections presenting with a 3-month history of abdominal pain. Laboratory tests revealed microcytic hypochromic anaemia and an elevated tumour marker CA-125. An investigation identified a large cystic abdominal mass, mostly in the left side of the abdomen. A laparotomy was performed with total resection of the lesion. Histological assessment resulted in a diagnosis of a mesothelial inclusion cyst. The patient had no recurrence after 3 years.

  • Hélio Martins, Joana Mendonça, David Paiva, Carlos Fernandes, Jorge Cotter

    A 55 years-old Caucasian male presented initially in the emergency room reporting myalgia, chills and fever. Physical exam and laboratory tests were unremarkable and he was discharged with symptomatic care. He returned to our ER two weeks later reporting dizziness, loss of balance, blurred vision, mild dysarthria and bilateral hand paresthesia. On examination he presented complete bilateral ophthalmoplegia, mild dysarthria, left finger-to-nose dysmetria, ataxia, areflexia and bilateral hand hypoesthesia without fever. Blood tests and head computed tomography were normal. The patient was admitted to the Internal Medicine department. On second day inwards the patient presented dysphagia. Head magnetic resonance angiogram showed no signs of ischemia or vascular disease and a lumbar puncture was performed but no pleocytosis, albumin-cytological dissociation or hypoglycorrhachia was present. Despite the normal results we suspected of a Guillain–Barré syndrome variant, and started treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in a dose of 400mg per kilogram and continued for five days with immediate neurological improvement. We present a rare overlapping case of Miller Fisher syndrome and Pharyngeal-Cervical-Brachial variant of Guillain–Barré syndrome.

  • Adriana Watts Soares, Maria Maia, João Espirito Santo, Ana Palricas Costa, Artur Pereira, Cristina Catarino

    The authors present the case of a 27-year-old patient who suffered from spontaneous bleeding during infancy and from a severe and central venous thrombosis in adult years. The patient underwent a thorough laboratory work-up on both occasions and was diagnosed with hypofibrinogenaemia as well as protein S deficiency, 2 diseases that contrast in their intrinsic bleeding/thrombotic risk. The patient´s high-risk pregnancy was carried out up to a successful full-term eutocic delivery which required fibrinogen concentrate to reduce life-threatening bleeding. The patient´s child was also diagnosed with hypofibrinogenaemia, later on confirmed with the pathogenic mutation Fibrinogen Marseilles II. This case was used to conduct a literature review of congenital fibrinogen disorders, rare entities that require more awareness for early diagnosis and accurate management.

  • Vanessa Barcelos, Ana Carolina Ferreira, António Xavier Fontes, Luís Dias, Humberto Costa, Dinis Martins

    Cardiovascular involvement by Leptospira is unusual. We report a case of a 29-year-old male sanitation worker who was diagnosed with leptospirosis (PCR testing for Leptospira spp. was positive in blood and urine). He had no classical clinical findings, and the presence of shock was the main worrisome finding. Within 24 hours of admission, the emergence of chest pain led us to consider cardiac involvement, which was demonstrated by diffuse supra-ST segment elevation, elevated troponin and NT-proBNP and an echocardiogram showing mildly left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 48–50%). There are several reports of cardiovascular involvement in severe leptospirosis but most patients are asymptomatic. In this case, the main key to diagnosis of perimyocarditis was the new onset of chest pain.

  • Carlos Couto, Pedro Pereira, Ana Catarina Moreira, Vicência Ribeiro, José Duarte

    Bilateral diaphragm paralysis due to bilateral isolated phrenic neuropathy (BIPN) is a very rare cause of unexplained respiratory failure.
    We present a 65-year-old patient with no relevant previous medical history who presented in the Pulmonology Clinic with mMRC1 dyspnoea and orthopnoea. After the medical work-up, diaphragmatic paresis was diagnosed. Inspiratory muscle training resulted in mild symptomatic improvement and treatment with noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) was initiated.
    This condition is generally chronic and has a poorer prognosis, compared to other cases of phrenic nerve involvement. In this case, NIV restored near-normal daily function.