• Nadia Mariagrazia Giannantoni, Elia Rigamonti, Francesca Irene Rampolli, Lorenzo Grazioli-Gauthier, Gilles Allali, Gianluca Vanini

    The current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global health crisis. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to critical illness affecting almost every organ including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Myoclonus, a less expected and relatively unusual neurological complication, together with ataxia, has lately been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We describe the case of a 67-year-old male patient, admitted to our hospital for interstitial bilateral pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, who progressively developed general myoclonus and later cerebellar ataxia and gait disturbance. Given the timeline from COVID-19 systemic symptoms to neurological manifestations and the normal results of extensive and non-conclusive diagnostic work-up (blood test, lumbar puncture, EEG, cerebral MRI), a para-infectious encephalopathy related to SARS-CoV-2 was contemplated and a high dose of methylprednisolone was started with prompt symptom improvement. 
    Further investigation and neuroepidemiological studies are needed to help define the mechanism of neuroinvasion and the entire spectrum of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in mildly affected patients, in terms of prevention, treatment and possible neurological sequelae.

  • Ashraf Nadeem, Ali Wahla, Ashraf Altarifi

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection that often causes rhinocerebral disease. However, there have been rare cases of mediastinal involvement. These patients remain a therapeutic challenge and mortality in this group is very high. We report a case of mediastinal mucormycosis with invasion of the heart and right lung in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and also review the available literature on mediastinal mucormycosis.

  • Gianluigi R Palmieri, Mattia Sansone, Roberto De Simone, Marcello Moccia

    Background: Diplopia is the double vision of a single object, and can be binocular or monocular. Binocular diplopia is caused by the misalignment of the visual axes, with images falling on the fovea of the fixating eye and on the extra-foveal retina of the non-fixating eye, as a consequence of both neurological (i.e., oculomotor nerve palsies, ocular myopathies, neuromuscular junction disorders) and ophthalmic disorders (i.e., decompensation of a pre-existing strabismus). In contrast, monocular diplopia is generally explained by intraocular pathology (i.e., refractive errors, ocular media abnormalities, dry eyes), causing the image of a single object to fall, at the same time, on the fovea and on the extra-foveal retina of the same eye.

    Methods: We report the case of a 22-year-old woman presenting with acute-onset monocular diplopia.

    Results: The diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) was based on the presence of papilloedema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. Monocular diplopia resolved after CSF subtraction.

    Conclusions: We describe a case of monocular diplopia as a presenting symptom of IIH, and discuss diagnostic issues of this possibly underestimated symptom in neurology clinical practice. Careful ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examination can identify clinical features of diplopia, and drive diagnosis and treatment.

  • Aurora Fuiani

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) can sometimes cause uncommon pseudotumoural lesions that produce atypical symptoms, such as motor epileptic seizures which are often pharmacoresistant. In these cases, accurate diagnosis is essential for correct therapy, even if unconventional. We present the case of a brain tumour in a 40-year-old relapsing-remitting MS patient who presented with pharmacoresistant seizures which eventually responded to nabiximols. After various therapeutic approaches, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol therapy was introduced with good results. Spasticity improved, pain decreased and we observed a reduction in the number of daily seizures. It is possible that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol can enhance the efficacy of anti-epilepsy therapy.