• Lídia Caley, Ana Campar, Teresa Mendonça, Fátima Farinha

    Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is one of the 13 subtypes of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, which has the major clinical criteria of hyperextensibility skin, atrophic scars, and generalised joint hypermobility. The occurrence of aortic dissection has been described in some subtypes of Ehlers-Danlos, but it has a rare association with the cEDS subtype. This case report discusses a 39-year-old female with a past medical history of transposition of great arteries with a Senning repair at the age of 18 months and controlled hypertension with medication, who presents a spontaneous distal aortic dissection. The diagnosis of cEDS was made using the major criteria, and a novel frameshift mutation in COL5A1 was discovered. The reported case emphasises that in patients with cEDS, vascular fragility may be a complication.

  • Pitchaporn Yingchoncharoen, Jerapas Thongpiya, Shrinkhala Maharjan, Mahmoud Abdelnabi , Samuel Kim, Sakditad Saowapa, Judy Lalmuanpuii

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia (DIIHA) is a rare but serious complication affecting approximately 1 in 1,000,000 patients, but its incidence might be underestimated due to misdiagnosis. Several factors should be considered to ensure an accurate diagnosis, including previous medical history, comorbidities, drug history, the temporal relationship between drug exposure and symptom onset, haemolytic features, and comorbidities in suspected cases. The authors report a case of DIIHA caused by combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel complicated with haeme pigment-induced acute kidney injury.

  • Joana Alfaiate, Andreia Brito, Ana Matos

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a diagnostic tool used to investigate mediastinal lesions. It has a good safety profile, but there are rare accounts of potentially deadly complications. The present article describes one such complication: pericardial empyema.
    A 70-year-old man underwent EBUS-TBNA for the differential diagnosis of a pulmonary mass with multiple mediastinal adenopathies. Two weeks after the procedure he developed chest pain, shortness of breath and fever, with rapid progression to hypotension, tachycardia and low peripheral saturation. He was diagnosed with purulent pericarditis with cardiac tamponade. Pericardial drainage and antibiotic therapy were employed with successful recovery from obstructive disease and septic shock.

  • João Luís Cavaco, Francisco Capinha, Maria José Pires, Ana Furão Rodrigues, Ana Oliveira Pedro, António Pais de Lacerda

    Introduction: Ischaemic anterior thalamic lesions are rare and can present with disturbances of behaviour and memory. We describe a patient with post-cardiac arrest thalamic stroke.

    Case description: A 63-year-old man presented with cardiac arrest, was resuscitated after receiving life support, and showed no lesions on computed tomography. Three days later, he presented with short-term memory disturbance and disorientation, with a de novo anterior thalamic lesion.

    Conclusion: The anterior thalamic nucleus, supplied by the posterior communicating artery, is part of the Papez circuit and has a role in modulating behaviour and memory. An anterior thalamic syndrome presents with no sensory-motor deficits.

  • Abbie Evans, Juthipong Benjanuwattra , Barbara Mora, Mahmoud Abdelnabi

    Acute myocarditis is a well-recognized condition attributable to a variety of viral illnesses. Common viral aetiologies include enteroviruses including coxsackie, adenovirus, influenza, echovirus, parvovirus B19 and herpesvirus. A high index of suspicion, early diagnosis, and prompt management with supportive anti-failure measures, and in selected cases immunosuppressive therapies including high-dose steroids, might be considered for better outcomes. The authors report a case of sudden onset of acute heart failure complicated by cardiogenic shock caused by viral myocarditis in a patient who initially presented with norovirus gastroenteritis. She had no previous cardiac history or significant cardiovascular risk factors. Prompt medical management for cardiogenic shock for norovirus-induced myocarditis was started, her symptoms gradually improved, and she was discharged safely on regular follow-up.