An Unusual Case of Large-Vessel Vasculitis
KeywordsVasculitis, Infection, Mucormycosis
We report the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who presented with severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and subjective fever and was found to have acute kidney injury, haematuria, leukocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. An abdominal CT scan showed lobar nephronia of the left kidney complicated by infarction. Subsequent MRI also revealed splenic infarction. Despite IV antibiotics and US-guided perinephric collection drainage, the condition of the patient continued to deteriorate so he underwent total nephrectomy. Serial follow-up CT scans showed multi-level vascular occlusions, bowel ischaemia and splenic infarction. Large-vessel vasculitis was suspected, and pulse steroid therapy was planned. However, the histopathology report of the resected kidney revealed mucor-like fungal infection suggestive of invasive mucormycosis as a cause for the widespread vasculitis. Although IV amphotericin B and caspofungin were started immediately, the patient died a few days later. We report this case to raise awareness that invasive fungal infection can cause large-vessel vasculitis. Immunosuppression for patients from endemic areas should only be considered after an infectious aetiology for vasculitis has been excluded.