Pericardial effusion, rheumatoid arthritis, pleuropericardial window
Introduction: Pericardial effusion is common in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is rarely its first manifestation.
Case description: An 82-year-old male presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. Blood analysis revealed elevated systemic inflammatory markers, and an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed non-specific alveolar condensation of the right pulmonary base and pericardial effusion subsequently quantified as medium size by transthoracic echocardiography. A large aetiological panel was requested, with the autoimmunity study revealing high levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. Since the patient did not present articular involvement, the initial hypothesis was pericardial effusion due to pneumonia and no specific treatment for RA was started. At follow-up, the pericardial effusion recurred and a pericardiocentesis was performed. The pericardial fluid analysis was sterile, and no malignant cells were identified. A new serological study confirmed high levels of RF and anti-CCP antibodies, and immunomodulatory treatment was initiated. After one year, the pericardial effusion recurred due to non-compliance with immunomodulatory therapy. A surgical pleuro-pericardial window was performed, and the cytological study of the pericardial patch revealed submesothelial thickening and foci of perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. The patient remained asymptomatic.
Discussion: After exclusion of a large spectrum of infectious and non-infectious causes and the relapse after suspension of immunomodulatory treatment, the most probable aetiology for the pericardial effusion remains RA.
Conclusion: Pericardial syndromes can be the first manifestation of AR even in the absence of articular symptoms and this disease must be considered in the aetiological investigation.
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Issue: 2024: Vol 11 No 2 (view)