Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, a diagnosis not to miss
KeywordsAnti-NMDAR encephalitis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, immunotherapy
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (Anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is sometimes mistaken for a psychiatric disorder and other times not considered in the differential diagnosis of an encephalitic process. Correct identification of this disease and prompt treatment are key for optimal recovery, which might take weeks to months. Many patients manifest severe symptoms, with depressed level of consciousness, breathing dysfunction and dysautonomia requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We report the case a young male patient with anti-NMDA encephalitis who presented typical neuropsychiatric symptoms. Despite being diagnosed and treated in a timely manner, he did not respond well to first-line immunotherapy and was admitted to the ICU with neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular dysfunction. This resulted in prolonged hospital admission and many infectious complications. Despite the severity of the disease, the patient managed to recover in the months following discharge from hospital.
Issue: 2023: Vol 10 No 8 (view)