COVID-19-Induced Hyperleucocytosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

  • Balraj Singh Saint Joseph's University Medical Center, Peterson, NJ, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7986-6031
  • Sarah Ayad Saint Joseph's University Medical Center, Peterson, NJ, USA
  • Parminder Kaur Saint Joseph's University Medical Center, Peterson, NJ, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7015-3489
  • Ro-Jay Reid Saint Joseph's University Medical Center, Peterson, NJ, USA
  • Sachin Gupta Saint Joseph's University Medical Center, Peterson, NJ, USA
  • Michael Maroules Saint Joseph's University Medical Center, Peterson, NJ, USA

Keywords

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphocytosis, leucocytosis, lymphopenia

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus responsible for the current global pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 usually presents with respiratory symptoms but can affect multiple organ systems. A wide spectrum of complications can occur depending upon the comorbidities of patients. There is limited literature available regarding the presentation and outcome of COVID-19 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients. We report 2 cases of COVID-19-induced hyperleucocytosis (WBC count >100,000/?l) in CLL patients.

VIEW THE ENTIRE ARTICLE

References

  • World Health Organization (WHO) [Internet]. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/ (accessed 18 January 2021).
  • Pollard CA, Morran MP, Nestor-Kalinoski AL. The COVID-19 pandemic: a global health crisis. Physiol Genomics 2020;52(11):549–557.
  • Machhi J, Herskovitz J, Senan AM, Dutta D, Nath B, Oleynikov MD, et al. The natural history, pathobiology, and clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infections. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2020;15(3):359–386.
  • Liang W, Guan W, Chen R, Wang W, Li J, Xu K, et al. Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. Lancet Oncol 2020;21(3):335–337.
  • Charra B, Ellouadghiri A, Magramane A, Kebbou T, Damaan K, Maghfour A, et al. COVID-19 and fortuitous discovery of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: biological findings and therapeutic challenges. Pan Afr Med J 2020;36:286.
  • Mato AR, Roeker LE, Lamanna N, Allan JN, Leslie L, Pagel JM, et al. Outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with CLL: a multicenter international experience. Blood 2020;136(10):1134–1143.
  • Wang K, Zuo P, Liu Y, Zhang M, Zhao X, Xie S, et al. Clinical and laboratory predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease-2019: a cohort study in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis 2020;71(16):2079–2088.
  • Vardanyan R, Arjomandi Rad A, Wilson F. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in COVID-19. Int J Lab Hematol 2020;42(6):e263–e265.
  • Paneesha S, Pratt G, Parry H, Moss P. Covid-19 infection in therapy-naive patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Res 2020;93:106366.
  • Singh N, Singh Lubana S, Dabrowski L, Sidhu G. Leukostasis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Case Rep 2020;21:e924798.
  • Algassim AA, Elghazaly AA, Alnahdi AS, Mohammed-Rahim OM, Alanazi AG, Aldhuwayhi NA, et al. Prognostic significance of hemoglobin level and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ann Hematol 2021;100(1):37–43.
  • Diehl LF, Ketchum LH. Autoimmune disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: autoimmune hemolytic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, and autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Semin Oncol 1998;25(1):80–97.
  • Sahu KK, Borogovac A, Cerny J. COVID-19 related immune hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. J Med Virol 2021;93(2):1164–1170.
  • Scarfò L, Chatzikonstantinou T, Rigolin GM, Quaresmini G, Motta M, Vitale C, et al. COVID-19 severity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a joint study by ERIC, the European Research Initiative on CLL, and CLL Campus. Leukemia 2020;34(9):2354–2363.
  • Ali E, Badawi M, Abdelmahmuod E, Kohla S, Yassin MA. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia concomitant with COVID 19: a case report. Am J Case Rep 2020;21:e926062.
  • Ye X, Xiao X, Li B, Zhu W, Li Y, Wu J, et al. Low humoral immune response and ineffective clearance of SARS-Cov-2 in a COVID-19 patient with CLL during a 69-day follow-up. Front Oncol 2020;10:1272.
  • Langerbeins P, Fürstenau M, Gruell H, Klein F, Persigehl T, Rybniker J, et al. COVID-19 complicated by parainfluenza co-infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur J Haematol 2020;105(4):508–511.
  • Alves Barbosa O, Guimarães Andrade T, de Almeida Sousa MD, Correia JW. COVID-19 in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with pseudohypoxemia. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2020;7(7):001763.
  • Thibaud S, Tremblay D, Bhalla S, Zimmerman B, Sigel K, Gabrilove J. Protective role of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and COVID-19. Br J Haematol 2020;190(2):e73–e76.
  • Reda G, Noto A, Cassin R, Zamprogna G, Borella C, Scarfò L, et al.; Rete Ematologica Lombarda (REL) Clinical Network. Reply to "CLL and COVID-19 at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona: an interim report" Analysis of six hematological centers in Lombardy: on behalf of CLL commission of Lombardy Hematology Network (REL). Leukemia 2020;34(9):2531–2532.
  • Lin AY, Cuttica MJ, Ison MG, Gordon LI. Ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the setting of respiratory failure from severe COVID-19 infection: case report and literature review. EJHaem. Epub 2020 Sep 20. doi: 10.1002/jha2.98.
  • Published: 2021-03-15

    Issue: Vol 8 No 3 (view)

    Section: Articles

    How to cite:
    1.
    Singh B, Ayad S, Kaur P, Reid R-J, Gupta S, Maroules M. COVID-19-Induced Hyperleucocytosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia. EJCRIM 2021;8 doi:10.12890/2021_002348.